Онсэны и рёканы: переходим к водным процедурам

Текст: 
Сергей Орлов

 

Традиция отдыхать на водах распространилась среди европейской аристократии в XIX веке. Когда появилась японская традиция отдыха и лечения в онсэнах, точно не знает никто. Зато известны водные курорты Японии, бесперебойно принимающие путешественников более тысячи лет. Первое письменное упоминание сразу о нескольких горячих источниках как местах отдыха датируется 720-м годом

Рядом с источниками развивалась инфраструктура — гостиницы-рёканы, постоялые дворы, ресторанчики и питейные заведения, лавки. Так сформировалась основа туристической индустрии Японии, где до сих пор подземные воды, точнее, места их выхода на поверхность, важные точки притяжения туристов. Японцы любят путешествовать по своим островам, отдыхая на разных водах. Попробуем воспользоваться их опытом и мы, ведь вода — источник здоровья, красоты и долголетия. Недаром в Японии, стране с самой высокой продолжительностью жизни, считается, что купание в онсэнах — лучший способ восстановления сил и приведения в порядок организма. В зависимости от химического состава воды на курортах можно вылечить различные заболевания. Главное — изучить специфику заинтересовавшего онсэна.

Сами японцы шутят, что организовать курорт на Японских островах можно почти в любом месте: главное — прорыть скважину нужной глубины. Большие общественные бани с горячей водой из подземных скважин можно посещать и в Токио. Но гораздо интереснее отправиться куда-нибудь в глубинку, поближе к природе. Довольно часто водные курорты могут похвастаться пейзажами сказочной красоты. Созерцание природы умиротворяет, регулируя работу нервной системы и ускоряя любое лечение. 

Кстати, о скорости лечения: в прошлые века люди, приезжавшие на воды, проводили на курорте довольно много времени — от одной до трех недель. Современные туристы обычно не могут позволить себе продолжительные курсы, ограничиваясь несколькими днями. Более того, стало нормальным приезжать на курорт на одну ночь. Развитая транспортная инфраструктура Японии, включая скоростные железные дороги, позволяет такие короткие туры. 

Черная речка

В буквальном переводе с японского название города-курорта Курокава, что в префектуре Кумамото, означает «Черная речка». Несколько сот лет сюда приезжают на целебные воды. В Японии бесчисленное число онсэнов, конкурирующих за туристов, но власти Курокавы нашли свою фишку, привлекающую путешественников. На Черной речке поддерживается аутентичный старинный стиль. В городском пейзаже преобладают природные цвета и материалы: деревянные дома, глиняные стены, булыжные лестницы, мостики в старинном стиле... И все это  на фоне буйной листвы деревьев.

В Курокаве и ближайших окрестностях работают около трех десятков отелей-рёканов, объединенных в ассоциацию. Городок маленький, до любой точки можно дойти пешком. Большинство туристов ходит по городу в легких кимоно — юката. В центре города находится туристический информационный центр. Здесь можно приобрести оригинальный билет в виде деревянного кружка на веревочке — «нюто тэгата», дающий право на посещение любых трех онсэнов на выбор.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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